Statistical Summary – Aviation Occurrences 2014

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Foreword

This document provides Canadians with an annual summary of selected aviation safety data. The Transportation Safety Board of Canada (TSB) gathers and uses this data during the course of our investigations to analyse safety deficiencies and identify risks in the Canadian transportation system.

On March 12, 2014, the TSB implemented new regulations that changed the reporting requirements effective July 1, 2014. These changes are reflected in this statistical summary.

Users of these statistics are advised that, in a live database, the occurrence data are constantly being updated. Consequently, the statistics may change slightly over time. Further, as many occurrences are not formally investigated, information recorded for some occurrences may not have been verified. The 2014 statistics presented here reflect the TSB database updated on February 17, 2015.

To enhance awareness and increase the safety value of the material presented in the TSB Statistical Summary—Aviation Occurrences 2014, readers are encouraged to copy or reprint the data presented, in whole or in part, for further distribution (with acknowledgements of the source).

The TSB is an independent agency operating under its own Act of Parliament. Its sole aim is the advancement of transportation safety.

Comments on this document can be sent to the following address:

Transportation Safety Board of Canada
Communications Branch
Place du Centre
200 Promenade du Portage, 4th Floor
Gatineau, Quebec
K1A 1K8

Telephone: 819-994-3741
Facsimile: 819-997-2239
E-mail: communications@bst-tsb.gc.ca


Accidents

Overview of accidents and fatalities

In 2014, a total of 249 aviation accidents were reported to the TSB, a 10% decrease from the previous year's total of 276 and a 12% decrease from the 5-year average of 282. Of the total, 212 involved Canadian-registered aircraft (excluding ultra-lights)Footnote 1, a 13% decrease from the previous year's total of 243 (Figure 1), and a 12% decrease from the 5-year average of 241.

The 2014 estimate of flying activity is 4,433,000 hoursFootnote 2, and the accident rate for Canadian-registered aircraft was 4.6 accidents per 100,000 flying hours, a decrease from the previous year's accident rate of 5.2 Analysis using linear regression indicates a statistically significant downward trend in accident rates (p < .001)Footnote 3 over the 10-year period from 2005 to 2014 (Figure 1). Similarly, the 2014 accident rate of 3.4 accidents per 100,000 aircraft movements decreased from the 2013 rate of 3.9 accidents per 100,000 aircraft movements, and that rate has also trended significantly downward (p < .05) over the same 10-year period.

Figure 1. Accidents and accident rates, 2005–2014
Figure 1 data
Year Number of accidents Accidents per 100,000 flying hours
2005 251 6.7
2006 258 6.6
2007 279 6.6
2008 239 5.6
2009 242 6.3
2010 238 6.0
2011 227 5.3
2012 232 5.3
2013 231 5.2
2014 204 4.6

The 212 accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft (Figure 2),included 170 accidents involving aeroplanesFootnote 4 (34 accidents involved commercially operated aeroplanes) and 34 accidents involving helicopters. The remaining 8 accidents involved gliders, gyroplanes, balloons, or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).

Of the 34 accidents involving Canadian-registered commercially operated aeroplanes (5 airliners, 1 commuter aircraft, 18 air taxi, 8 aerial work, and 2 flight training) in 2014, 2 resulted in a total of 4 fatalities (Table 4). One fatal accident involved air taxi, and one fatal accident involved aerial work.

A total of 131 accidents involved Canadian-registered private/other aeroplanes, 11% lower than the 5-year average of 148. In 2014, 8 such accidents resulted in fatalities, down from 16 in 2013, and down from the 5-year average of 15.

Figure 2. Accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft, by aircraft type, 2014
Figure 2 data
Aircraft type 2009–2013 average 2014
Airliner aeroplane 5 5
Commuter aeroplane 5 1
Air taxi aeroplane 26 18
Aerial work aeroplane 13 8
Corporate operated aeroplane 2 3
State operated aeroplane 3 2
Private or other type of operated aeroplane 148 131
Helicopter 33 34
Other aircraft types 7 8

In 2014, 10 fatal accidents involved Canadian-registered aircraft other than ultra-lights (Figure 3), substantially down from the 2013 total of 32 and down from the 5-year average of 31.

The number of fatalities (15), was substantially lower than the 2013 total of 60, and the 5-year average of 61. The number of serious injuries (29) was higher than the 2013 total of 19 but slightly lower than the 5-year average of 33.

Figure 3. Fatalities and fatal accidents, 2005–2014
Figure 3 data
Year Fatalities Fatal accidents
2005 55 34
2006 52 31
2007 50 33
2008 51 26
2009 64 28
2010 64 31
2011 62 30
2012 54 33
2013 60 32
2014 15 10

In 2014, crew fatalities accounted for 71% of aircraft fatalities, and passenger fatalities accounted for 29%.

In 2014, 34 accidents involved Canadian-registered helicopters, similar to the 5-year average of 33. Unlike in 2013, where there were 6 fatal accidents resulting in 12 fatalities, in 2014, none of the helicopter accidents were fatal. This is the first year without helicopter fatalities in the last ten years. Over the past 10 years, the highest proportion of helicopter accidents occurred during air transport operations (41%), pleasure/travel (16%), and training (6%).

In 2014, 31 accidents in Canada involved Canadian-registered ultra-light aircraft, an 11% increase from the 5-year average of 28. Two of these were fatal accidents resulting in 2 fatalities.

In 2014, 7 accidents involved foreign-registered aircraft in Canada, with 2 fatal accidents resulting in 4 fatalities.

Accidents by selected categories

Province (Table 8)

In 2014, The total number of Canadian-registered aircraft accidents were slightly lower than the 5-year average for most provinces (Figure 4). Quebec accounted for 27% of Canadian-registered aircraft accidents, Ontario accounted for 25%, and Alberta accounted for 15%. These accidents were approximately proportional to the number of registered aircraft in those provincesFootnote 5.

Figure 4. Accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft, by province, 2014
Figure 4 data
Year 2009–2013 average 2014
B.C. 42 27
Alta. 25 31
Sask. 15 10
Man. 18 11
Ont. 57 53
Que. 55 57
ATL 3 6
N.W.T/Y.T./Nvt. 3 2
Foreign 6 4

Accident events and phases (Tables 11 and 12)

Accidents may be analyzed in more detail by examining the nature and distribution of selected events contributing to an occurrence. Tables 11 and 12 show counts of accidents involving selected event types within each phase of flight.

Although a single accident may involve more than one event within a phase, that accident is only counted once in the phase total. Therefore, the total of events within a phase will not sum to phase event totals. For example, in the take-off phase, if an occurrence involves both loss of control and power loss events, the occurrence is counted in each event category, but only once in the phase total. As well, approximately 5% of aeroplane accidents and 25% of helicopter accidents involve events in more than one phase of flight (not including post-impact), so the accidents shown in Figure 5 and Figure 6 sum to more than the total of accidents.

In 2014, the distribution was similar to that of 2013. The greatest numbers of aeroplane accidents were associated with landing (56%) and take-off (27%) phases of flight, followed by approach (15%) and en route (13%) phases. The greatest numbers of helicopter accidents were associated with landing (35%), takeoff (26%), and en route (21%) phases of flight, followed by manoeuveringFootnote 6 (18%) and standing/taxiing (12%) phases. The figures below show the distribution of accidents per phase of flight for the period 2005–2014.

Figure 5. Aeroplane accidents by event phase of flight, 2005–2014
Figure 5 data
Event phase of flight All accidents Fatal accidents
Standing/Taxiing 182 5
Take-off 475 46
En route 329 87
Manoeuvering 105 25
Approach 273 47
Landing 1159 31
Post-impact 152 79
Figure 6. Helicopter accidents by event phase of flight, 2005–2014
Figure 6 data
Event phase of flight All accidents Fatal accidents
Standing/Taxiing 40 1
Take-off 71 11
En route 92 27
Manoeuvering 99 23
Approach 43 9
Landing 147 7
Post-impact 39 18
Aeroplane accidents

From 2005 to 2014, of the 1,159 aeroplane accidents with landing phase events, 21% involved collision with object, 21% involved missing or going off the runway, 18% involved landing gear collapse or retraction, and 18% involved a nosedown or overturning event. Of the 475 aeroplane accidents with take-off phase events, 30% involved collision with terrain, 29% involved collision with object, and 28% involved loss of control.

Fatal aeroplane accidents

Collision with terrain was the predominant event in fatal aeroplane accidents from 2005 to 2014. Collision with terrain was involved in 57% of the 46 fatal aeroplane accidents with takeoff phase events, 69% of 87 fatal aeroplane accidents with en route phase events, 72% of 25 fatal aeroplane accidents with manoeuvering phase events, 68% of 47 fatal aeroplane accidents with approach phase events, and 48% of 31 fatal aeroplane accidents with landing phase events.

Helicopter accidents

From 2005 to 2014, of the 147 helicopter accidents with landing phase events, 27% involved a hard landing, 24% involved a collision with object, 22% involved collision with terrain, and 19% involved loss of control. Of the 99 helicopter accidents with manoeuvering phase events, 47% involved collision with terrain, 27% involved loss of control, and 27% involved collision with object.

Fatal helicopter accidents

Collision with terrain was also the predominant event in fatal helicopter accidents from 2005 to 2014. Collision with terrain was involved in 8 of 11 fatal helicopter accidents with takeoff phase events, 21 of 27 fatal helicopter accidents with en route phase events, 15 of 23 fatal helicopter accidents with manoeuvering phase events, 4 of 9 fatal helicopter accidents with approach phase events, and 6 of 7 fatal helicopter accidents with landing phase events.

Operation type (Table 6)

In 2014, aeroplane accidents occurred mainly on recreational flights (56%), followed by training (16%) and air transport flights (13%). Helicopter accidents occurred mainly on air transport flights (53%) and recreational flights (21%).

Incidents

Overview of incidents

Pursuant to TSB mandatory incident reporting requirements, 738 incidents were reported in 2014, with 653 involving Canadian-registered aircraft. This is an 8% increase from the 2013 total of 686, and 2% increase from the 5-year average of 721. On March 12, 2014, the TSB issued new regulations that changed the reporting requirements effective July 1, 2014. Under the new reporting requirements, aviation incidents include aircraft having a maximum certificated take-off weight greater than 2,250 kg (formerly 5,700 kg) and aircraft being operated under an air operator certificate issued under Canadian Aviation Regulations, Part VII. The increase in incidents in 2014 is consistent with this change.

In 2014, the most frequent incident types involving all Canadian-registered and foreign-registered aircraft were declared emergency (42%), engine failure, (14%), and risk of collision or loss of separation (13%) (Figure 7).

Figure 7. Reportable incidents by type, 2014
Figure 7 data
Type Number Percentage
Declared emergency 313 42%
Risk of collision/Loss of separation 93 13%
Engine failure 104 14%
Smoke/Fire 88 12%
Collision 16 2%
Other incident type 124 17%

Appendices

Appendix A: Data tables

Table 1. Reportable aviation occurrences, 2005-2014
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Accidents 306 303 323 294 297 288 257 291 276 249
Accidents in Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 283 278 300 274 271 273 240 267 262 238
Accidents outside Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 7 11 13 7 11 1 7 8 4 4
Accidents in Canada involving foreign-registered aircraft 18 14 10 15 15 14 10 17 10 7
Accidents by operator type 306 303 323 294 297 288 257 291 276 249
Commercial 94 105 98 95 74 86 77 73 65 59
Airliner (705) 4 7 4 6 2 6 6 5 7 5
Commuter (704) 7 4 4 5 6 7 6 5 3 2
Air taxi (703) 56 63 53 64 44 44 37 34 32 33
Aerial work (702) 26 30 34 19 20 28 27 26 21 17
Foreign/Other commercial type (a) 2 1 4 2 2 1 1 4 2 3
State 2 4 2 5 4 5 2 4 6 4
Corporate 10 3 10 4 6 2 7 6 6 5
Private/Other operator type (b) 201 191 213 191 215 195 172 208 200 181
Accidents by aircraft type 306 303 323 294 297 288 257 291 276 249
Aeroplane 218 216 243 208 223 220 201 205 212 176
Helicopter 50 56 46 44 33 31 36 41 27 34
Ultralight 31 28 30 29 35 30 17 36 24 32
Other aircraft type (c) 8 4 5 13 7 7 3 9 14 8
Number of aircraft involved in accidents * 314 311 327 300 303 290 261 296 280 253
Aeroplanes 224 223 245 214 228 222 204 209 215 179
Helicopters 51 56 47 44 33 31 36 42 27 34
Ultralights 31 28 30 29 35 30 17 36 24 32
Other aircraft type (c) 8 4 5 13 7 7 4 9 14 8
Fatal accidents by aircraft type 44 34 38 38 34 36 35 42 38 14
Aeroplane 27 24 25 16 21 28 23 25 25 12
Helicopter 10 9 6 9 8 3 8 7 6 0
Ultralight 5 1 5 12 4 3 3 8 4 2
Other aircraft type (c) 2 0 2 1 1 2 1 2 4 0
Fatalities 69 55 56 64 71 70 67 63 66 21
Serious injuries 61 53 65 50 45 36 49 49 22 36
Accidents in Canada involving foreign-registered aircraft 18 14 10 15 15 14 10 17 10 7
Fatal accidents 6 2 0 0 2 2 2 1 2 2
Fatalities 10 2 0 0 2 2 2 1 2 4
Serious injuries 15 1 2 5 3 1 1 4 0 1
Occurrences with a dangerous good release 1 2 4 1 3 1 0 1 4 4
Incidents (d) 796 807 874 887 790 814 677 636 686 738
Incidents in Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 571 580 622 651 591 582 520 481 540 595
Incidents outside Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 79 78 69 78 67 83 55 49 39 58
Incidents in Canada involving foreign-registered aircraft 184 188 224 194 155 188 127 128 126 99
Incidents by type (d) 796 807 874 887 790 814 677 636 686 738
Risk of collision/Loss of separation 174 168 168 172 153 206 120 101 115 93
Declared emergency 222 260 298 314 313 310 275 260 291 313
Engine failure 139 130 129 120 107 87 95 90 83 104
Smoke/Fire 99 102 123 107 97 81 88 71 67 88
Collision 12 21 13 8 9 4 7 5 15 16
Other incident type 150 126 143 166 111 126 92 109 115 124

Data extracted February 17, 2015.

Accidents and reportable incidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.

Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, in the total "Accidents by aircraft type", when an occurrence involves an airplane and a helicopter, the occurrence is counted in each category, but only once in the total.

* "Number of aircraft involved in accidents" are aircraft counts, all other data are accident counts.

a. The commercial service type is not available for foreign-registered aircraft.

b. Other operator type contains, but is not limited to, organizations that rent aircraft (i.e., flying schools, flying clubs, etc.).

c. Includes balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, dirigibles, hang gliders, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and similar aircraft types.

d. New TSB regulations came into effect on July 1, 2014. Under new reporting requirements aviation incidents include: a) aircraft having a maximum certificated take-off weight greater than 2 250 kg (formerly 5700 kg); b) aircraft being operated under an air operator certificate issued under CARS Part VII.

Table 2. Occurrences involving Canadian-registered aircraft, 2005-2014
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Accidents by aircraft and operator type (a) 259 262 284 252 249 244 230 239 243 212
Aeroplane accidents 203 202 234 197 210 209 192 191 204 170
Commercial 57 54 58 63 54 57 49 44 40 34
Airliner (705) 4 7 4 6 2 6 5 5 7 5
Commuter (704) 6 4 4 5 5 6 4 5 3 1
Air taxi (703) 33 30 39 41 36 28 26 20 18 18
Aerial work (702) 14 13 11 12 10 17 14 14 12 8
Other commercial type 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2
State 1 4 1 3 2 3 2 2 2 3
Corporate 6 2 7 4 4 2 4 3 4 2
Private/Other operator type (b) 139 142 168 127 152 147 138 142 159 131
Helicopter accidents 49 56 45 42 32 29 35 41 27 34
Commercial 35 50 34 28 19 27 26 28 22 24
State 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 1 1
Corporate 0 0 3 0 1 0 1 1 0 0
Private/Other operator type (b) 13 6 7 14 12 2 8 10 4 9
Other aircraft type (c) 8 4 5 13 7 6 3 7 13 8
Fatal accidents by aircraft and operator type (a) 34 31 33 26 28 31 30 33 32 10
Aeroplane accidents 22 22 25 16 20 27 21 25 24 10
Commercial 9 6 7 3 5 12 10 6 7 2
Airliner (705) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Commuter (704) 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
Air taxi (703) 6 5 5 3 5 7 6 3 5 1
Aerial work (702) 2 1 1 0 0 4 2 2 1 1
Other commercial type 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
State 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Corporate 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 0
Private/Other operator type (b) 13 15 17 11 15 15 11 19 16 8
Helicopter accidents 10 9 6 9 7 3 8 7 6 0
Other aircraft type (c) 2 0 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 0
Fatalities (a) 55 52 50 51 64 64 62 54 60 15
Serious injuries (a) 37 40 56 40 34 31 43 39 19 29
Incidents by type (d) 650 658 691 729 658 665 575 530 579 653
Risk of collision/Loss of separation 150 150 152 149 137 179 105 92 105 83
Declared emergency 152 184 186 235 237 238 224 200 231 277
Engine failure 116 106 108 98 94 67 87 77 70 94
Smoke/Fire 85 86 106 90 84 70 67 59 55 76
Collision 8 18 9 7 7 3 7 4 14 15
Other incident type 139 114 130 150 99 108 85 98 104 108
Accidents involving ultralight aircraft 31 28 30 29 34 30 17 36 23 31
Fatal accidents 5 1 5 12 4 3 3 8 4 2
Fatalities 6 1 6 13 5 4 3 8 4 2
Serious injuries 9 12 7 5 8 4 5 6 3 6

Data extracted February 17, 2015.

Accidents and reportable incidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.

Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, in the total "Number of accidents by aircraft type", when an occurrence involves an airplane and a helicopter, the occurrence is counted in each category, but only once in the total.

a. Accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft, excluding ultralights.

b. Other operator type contains, but is not limited to, organizations that rent aircraft (i.e. flying schools, flying clubs, etc.).

c. Includes balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, dirigibles, hang gliders, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and similar aircraft types.

d. New TSB regulations came into effect on July 1, 2014. Under new reporting requirements aviation incidents include: a) aircraft having a maximum certificated take-off weight greater than 2 250 kg (formerly 5700 kg); b) aircraft being operated under an air operator certificate issued under CARS Part VII.

Table 3a. Accident rates involving Canadian-registered aircraft (per hours flown, excluding ultralights and other aircraft types), 2005-2014
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Accidents 251 258 279 239 242 238 227 232 231 204
Fatal accidents 32 31 31 25 27 30 29 32 30 10
Fatalities 52 52 47 50 63 63 60 53 58 15
Hours flown (thousands) (a) 3,755 3,919 4,201 4,241 3,864 3,987 4,271 4,365 4,421 4,433
Accidents per 100,000 hours 6.7 6.6 6.6 5.6 6.3 6.0 5.3 5.3 5.2 4.6
Fatal accidents per 100,000 hours 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.2
Fatalities per 100,000 hours 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.6 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.3 0.3

Data extracted February 17, 2015.

Accidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.

Canadian-registered aircraft, excluding ultralights, balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, dirigibles, hang gliders and similar aircraft types.

a. Source: Transport Canada (2013 to 2014 hours flown are estimated).

Table 3b. Aircraft accident rates in Canada (per movements, excluding ultralights and other aircraft types), 2005-2014
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Accidents 260 261 277 245 246 250 230 238 235 206
Fatal accidents 36 29 30 21 28 31 30 31 28 11
Fatalities 59 49 44 43 64 64 61 52 53 17
Aircraft movements (thousands) (a) 6,056 6,206 6,722 6,751 6,443 6,327 6,179 6,157 6,027 6,011
Accidents per 100,000 aircraft movements 4.3 4.2 4.1 3.6 3.8 4.0 3.7 3.9 3.9 3.4
Fatal accidents per 100,000 aircraft movements 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.2
Fatalities per 100,000 aircraft movements 1.0 0.8 0.7 0.6 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.9 0.3

Data extracted February 17, 2015.

Accidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.

Excluding ultralights, balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, dirigibles, hang gliders and similar aircraft types.

a. Source: Statistics Canada (November and December 2014 non-tower movements are estimated).

Table 4. Aircraft accident fatalities, 2005-2014
  2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Fatalities 69 55 56 64 71 70 67 63 66 21
Fatalities in Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 60 48 53 57 67 68 64 61 58 15
Fatalities outside Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 1 5 3 7 2 0 1 1 6 2
Fatalities in Canada involving foreign-registered aircraft 10 2 0 0 2 2 2 1 2 4
Fatalities by operator type 69 55 56 64 71 70 67 63 66 21
Commercial 26 28 19 25 36 36 38 17 28 4
Airliner (705) 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 0 0 0
Commuter (704) 2 0 1 0 17 1 2 1 5 0
Air taxi (703) 17 18 10 20 18 28 16 12 19 2
Aerial work (702) 7 10 9 5 1 7 8 3 4 2
Foreign/Other commercial type (a) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
State 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Corporate 1 0 1 7 0 0 2 0 1 0
Private/Other operator type (b) 42 26 36 32 35 34 27 45 37 17
Crew fatalities by operator type 44 32 37 35 35 39 37 40 44 15
Commercial 15 12 12 8 10 17 18 10 20 3
Airliner (705) 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0
Commuter (704) 2 0 0 0 2 1 2 0 2 0
Air taxi (703) 9 5 7 6 7 11 7 7 14 1
Aerial work (702) 4 7 6 2 1 5 5 2 4 2
Foreign/Other commercial type (a) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
State 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Corporate 1 0 1 2 0 0 2 0 1 0
Private/Other operator type (b) 28 19 24 25 25 22 17 29 23 12
Passenger fatalities by operator type 25 22 19 28 36 30 29 22 20 6
Commercial 11 15 7 16 26 18 20 6 8 1
Airliner (705) 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0
Commuter (704) 0 0 1 0 15 0 0 1 3 0
Air taxi (703) 8 12 3 14 11 16 9 5 5 1
Aerial work (702) 3 3 3 2 0 2 3 0 0 0
Foreign/Other commercial type (a) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
State 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Corporate 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0
Private/Other operator type (b) 14 7 12 7 10 12 9 16 12 5
Ground fatalities 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 2 0
Fatalities by aircraft type 69 55 56 64 71 70 67 63 66 21
Aeroplane 45 42 39 34 38 57 47 44 47 19
Helicopter 15 12 8 16 27 7 15 9 12 0
Ultralight 6 1 6 13 5 4 3 8 4 2
Other aircraft type (c) 3 0 3 1 1 2 2 2 7 0

Data extracted February 17, 2015.

Accidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.

Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, in the total "Fatalities by aircraft type", when an occurrence involves an airplane and a helicopter, a fatality is counted in each category, but only once in the total.

a. The commercial service type is not available for foreign-registered aircraft.

b. Other operator type contains, but is not limited to, organizations that rent aircraft (i.e., flying schools, flying clubs, etc.).

c. Includes balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, dirigibles, hang gliders, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and similar aircraft types.

Table 5. Aircraft accident serious injuries, 2005-2014
  2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Serious injuries 61 53 65 50 45 36 49 49 22 36
Serious injuries in Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 45 51 61 45 41 35 39 40 22 35
Serious injuries outside Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 1 1 2 0 1 0 9 5 0 0
Serious injuries in Canada involving foreign-registered aircraft 15 1 2 5 3 1 1 4 0 1
Serious injuries by operator type 61 53 65 50 45 36 49 49 22 36
Commercial 24 20 30 24 11 16 31 20 11 9
Airliner (705) 1 1 0 1 1 1 10 1 0 0
Commuter (704) 0 0 1 2 1 4 7 2 2 0
Air taxi (703) 4 16 15 18 6 7 9 15 6 5
Aerial work (702) 7 2 14 3 3 4 5 1 3 3
Foreign/Other commercial type (a) 12 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
State 1 2 3 0 2 1 0 0 0 0
Corporate 4 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 0
Private/Other operator type (b) 33 31 31 26 29 19 18 29 11 27
Crew serious injuries by operator type 37 28 30 25 26 22 18 25 13 23
Commercial 11 9 10 11 5 6 6 5 4 4
Airliner (705) 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Commuter (704) 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 2 0 0
Air taxi (703) 2 6 3 9 2 2 2 1 2 2
Aerial work (702) 6 2 6 2 3 3 4 1 2 1
Foreign/Other commercial type (a) 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
State 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0
Corporate 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0
Private/Other operator type (b) 23 18 19 14 18 15 12 20 9 19
Passenger serious injuries by operator type 22 23 32 25 19 13 30 23 8 12
Commercial 11 10 20 13 6 10 24 14 6 5
Airliner (705) 0 0 0 1 1 1 10 0 0 0
Commuter (704) 0 0 0 2 1 3 7 0 2 0
Air taxi (703) 1 9 12 9 4 5 7 14 4 3
Aerial work (702) 0 0 8 1 0 1 0 0 0 2
Foreign/Other commercial type (a) 10 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
State 0 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Corporate 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Private/Other operator type (b) 10 12 9 12 11 3 6 9 2 7
Ground serious injuries 2 2 3 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
Serious injuries by aircraft type 61 53 65 50 45 36 49 49 22 36
Aeroplane 41 28 32 29 24 28 36 32 13 21
Helicopter 10 9 13 14 11 3 8 7 6 7
Ultralight 9 12 7 5 8 4 5 6 3 7
Other aircraft type (c) 2 4 13 2 2 1 0 4 0 1

Data extracted February 17, 2015.

Accidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.

Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, in the total "Serious injuries by aircraft type", when an occurrence involves an airplane and a helicopter, a serious injury is counted in each category, but only once in the total.

a. The commercial service type is not available for foreign-registered aircraft.

b. Other operator type contains, but is not limited to, organizations that rent aircraft (i.e., flying schools, flying clubs, etc.).

c. Includes balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, dirigibles, hang gliders, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and similar aircraft types.

Table 6. Accidents involving Canadian-registered aeroplanes and helicopters by operation type, 2005-2014
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Aeroplane accidents by operation type 203 202 234 197 210 209 192 191 204 170
Training 16 33 33 30 43 28 28 27 24 27
Pleasure/Travel 116 96 118 83 109 108 102 109 127 96
Business 6 8 15 7 4 6 7 4 2 9
Forest fire management 2 4 0 1 3 2 1 2 3 2
Test/Demonstration/Ferry 5 6 8 4 0 6 4 4 4 4
Aerial application 6 8 8 9 4 10 4 3 7 5
Inspection 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0
Air transport 35 37 40 46 34 37 35 28 26 22
Air ambulance 1 3 2 3 5 2 1 1 0 1
Sightseeing 2 3 1 2 2 1 2 6 1 1
Other/Unknown 14 5 9 11 8 9 10 8 11 4
Aeroplane fatal accidents by operation type 22 22 25 16 20 27 21 25 24 10
Training 0 4 3 0 1 1 1 1 2 1
Pleasure/Travel 12 11 10 8 13 14 10 16 11 7
Business 0 1 1 2 1 1 0 1 1 1
Forest fire management 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0
Test/Demonstration/Ferry 1 1 4 1 0 0 0 1 1 0
Aerial application 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
Inspection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Air transport 7 5 4 3 4 7 8 4 5 1
Air ambulance 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Sightseeing 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Other/Unknown 2 1 0 1 0 2 1 3 3 0
Helicopter accidents by operation type 49 56 45 42 32 29 35 41 27 34
Training 3 2 3 6 5 0 2 1 1 2
Pleasure/Travel 11 4 4 9 5 2 9 8 2 7
Business 1 0 5 0 3 0 0 3 1 0
Forest fire management 1 3 0 0 4 1 2 1 3 0
Test/Demonstration/Ferry 0 2 3 0 0 1 1 0 1 0
Aerial application 2 0 2 1 0 3 1 5 0 1
Inspection 0 1 1 0 0 1 2 2 2 3
Air transport 19 29 16 22 10 15 13 9 8 18
Air ambulance 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 0
Sightseeing 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1
Other/Unknown 11 15 12 3 4 6 5 10 7 2
Fatal helicopter accidents by operation type 10 9 6 9 7 3 8 7 6 0
Training 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0
Pleasure/Travel 5 0 0 3 2 0 2 0 0 0
Business 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Forest fire management 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
Test/Demonstration/Ferry 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0
Aerial application 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Inspection 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0
Air transport 3 2 3 4 3 2 1 1 3 0
Air ambulance 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Sightseeing 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Other/Unknown 1 4 2 2 0 0 1 3 1 0

Data extracted February 17, 2015.

Accidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.

Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, in the total "Airplane accidents by operation type", when an occurrence involves a Business and an Inspection airplane, the occurrence is counted in each category, but only once in the total.

Canadian-registered aircraft, excluding ultralights, balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, dirigibles, hang gliders and similar aircraft types.

Table 7. Aircraft accidents by province/territory, 2005-2014
  2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Accidents by province/territory 306 303 323 294 297 288 257 291 276 249
Newfoundland and Labrador 5 4 6 7 3 3 3 5 3 5
Prince Edward Island 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 0 2 4 6 3 7 5 5 5 3
New Brunswick 6 3 8 1 2 5 3 3 2 6
Quebec 64 56 72 58 68 65 58 71 66 69
Ontario 73 60 81 69 74 71 63 67 72 67
Manitoba 19 21 18 27 19 27 17 18 13 12
Saskatchewan 15 19 23 19 14 18 18 9 19 12
Alberta 34 44 32 33 31 25 22 35 29 33
British Columbia 70 64 46 44 59 47 43 54 51 30
Yukon 5 4 7 7 4 3 8 8 4 4
Northwest Territories 5 5 8 8 6 9 6 5 3 3
Nunavut 2 8 5 8 2 7 4 3 4 1
Other air space under Canadian air traffic control 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Outside Canada 7 11 13 7 11 1 7 8 4 4
Fatal accidents by province/territory 44 34 38 38 34 36 35 42 38 14
Newfoundland and Labrador 1 0 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 0
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1
New Brunswick 1 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1
Quebec 10 4 6 5 10 9 5 10 5 2
Ontario 7 4 6 7 6 9 6 10 9 5
Manitoba 2 0 3 1 0 1 1 3 2 0
Saskatchewan 1 4 5 0 2 0 3 1 2 1
Alberta 5 6 3 8 1 2 4 6 4 1
British Columbia 16 9 10 10 8 7 10 9 10 2
Yukon 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0
Northwest Territories 0 1 1 2 1 3 2 0 1 0
Nunavut 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0
Other air space under Canadian air traffic control 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Outside Canada 1 4 1 4 2 0 1 1 3 1
Fatalities by province/territory 69 55 56 64 71 70 67 63 66 21
Newfoundland and Labrador 2 0 1 0 18 2 0 0 0 0
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 0 0 1 0 0 2 1 0 1 1
New Brunswick 1 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2
Quebec 14 7 7 7 16 26 9 11 6 2
Ontario 11 6 7 8 12 14 9 19 19 8
Manitoba 2 0 5 1 0 1 1 4 5 0
Saskatchewan 2 4 6 0 4 0 8 5 3 2
Alberta 8 9 5 12 1 4 5 6 5 1
British Columbia 28 16 17 26 14 15 16 15 17 3
Yukon 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0
Northwest Territories 0 6 3 2 2 3 4 0 1 0
Nunavut 0 0 0 0 0 1 12 1 0 0
Other air space under Canadian air traffic control 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0
Outside Canada 1 5 3 7 2 0 1 1 6 2

Data extracted February 17, 2015.

Accidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.

Table 8. Accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft by province/territory (excluding ultralights), 2005-2014
  2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Accidents by province/territory 259 262 284 252 249 244 230 239 243 212
Newfoundland and Labrador 5 3 5 5 3 3 3 5 3 4
Prince Edward Island 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 0 0 3 2 1 7 3 3 5 2
New Brunswick 5 2 7 1 2 4 3 3 2 6
Quebec 56 48 61 50 60 52 52 52 57 57
Ontario 57 52 71 62 61 55 56 54 59 53
Manitoba 18 17 17 24 19 25 16 15 13 11
Saskatchewan 13 18 21 18 12 18 17 8 18 10
Alberta 28 41 31 28 28 24 18 30 27 31
British Columbia 59 53 36 33 44 38 39 46 44 27
Yukon 3 4 6 7 2 3 7 7 4 4
Northwest Territories 5 5 8 8 5 8 6 5 3 2
Nunavut 2 8 5 7 1 6 3 3 3 1
Other air space under Canadian air traffic control 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Outside Canada 7 11 13 7 10 1 7 8 4 4
Fatal accidents by province/territory 34 31 33 26 28 31 30 33 32 10
Newfoundland and Labrador 1 0 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 0
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0
New Brunswick 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1
Quebec 9 3 4 4 8 8 5 4 3 1
Ontario 6 4 6 4 5 8 4 9 6 3
Manitoba 2 0 3 1 0 1 1 3 2 0
Saskatchewan 0 3 4 0 1 0 3 1 2 1
Alberta 2 6 3 4 1 2 3 5 4 1
British Columbia 12 9 9 6 8 5 9 8 9 2
Yukon 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0
Northwest Territories 0 1 1 2 1 2 2 0 1 0
Nunavut 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0
Other air space under Canadian air traffic control 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Outside Canada 1 4 1 4 1 0 1 1 3 1
Fatalities by province/territory 55 52 50 51 64 64 62 54 60 15
Newfoundland and Labrador 2 0 1 0 18 2 0 0 0 0
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0
New Brunswick 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2
Quebec 12 6 5 6 14 25 9 5 4 1
Ontario 10 6 7 4 11 12 7 18 16 4
Manitoba 2 0 5 1 0 1 1 4 5 0
Saskatchewan 0 3 5 0 2 0 8 5 3 2
Alberta 4 9 5 8 1 4 4 5 5 1
British Columbia 23 16 15 22 14 13 15 14 16 3
Yukon 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0
Northwest Territories 0 6 3 2 2 2 4 0 1 0
Nunavut 0 0 0 0 0 1 12 1 0 0
Other air space under Canadian air traffic control 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0
Outside Canada 1 5 3 7 1 0 1 1 6 2

Data extracted February 17, 2015.

Accidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.

Table 9. Reportable aircraft incidents, 2005-2014
  2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Incidents by type 796 807 874 887 790 814 677 636 686 738
Risk of collision/Loss of separation 174 168 168 172 153 206 120 101 115 93
Declared emergency 222 260 298 314 313 310 275 260 291 313
Engine failure 139 130 129 120 107 87 95 90 83 104
Smoke/Fire 99 102 123 107 97 81 88 71 67 88
Collision 12 21 13 8 9 4 7 5 15 16
Control difficulties 44 41 41 39 24 32 31 33 25 40
Crew unable to perform duties 67 57 65 78 59 50 26 40 58 36
Dangerous goods-related 1 2 3 1 3 1 0 1 3 4
Depressurization 14 9 13 17 6 11 16 15 14 12
Fuel shortage 10 6 8 7 4 9 6 7 2 6
Failure to remain in landing area 11 7 9 18 9 13 11 10 9 20
Incorrect fuel 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Slung load released 1 3 3 5 3 9 1 1 4 5
Transmission or gearbox failure 1 0 1 0 3 1 1 2 0 1
Incidents by operator type 796 807 874 887 790 814 677 636 686 738
Commercial 732 773 823 857 751 776 637 598 653 695
Airliner (705) 488 528 563 590 499 520 448 409 450 429
Commuter (704) 89 80 75 94 88 85 75 78 90 104
Air taxi (703) 39 52 25 36 43 30 29 26 35 80
Aerial work (702) 22 20 20 24 31 26 15 11 12 35
Foreign/Other commercial type (a) 151 165 196 181 138 171 110 110 111 80
State 28 21 29 17 24 25 14 21 20 13
Corporate 45 30 43 21 29 20 22 20 20 17
Private/Other operator type (b) 40 31 24 33 26 31 25 21 19 35
Incidents by aircraft type 796 807 874 887 790 814 677 636 686 738
Aeroplane 779 787 854 870 772 789 659 624 670 713
Helicopter 20 29 22 19 21 32 20 17 20 29
Ultralight/Other aircraft type (c) 1 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 3
Number of aircraft involved in incidents * 956 974 1031 1052 916 977 779 733 797 826
Aeroplanes 935 942 1009 1033 893 943 759 716 777 794
Helicopters 20 30 22 19 22 32 20 17 20 29
Ultralight/Other aircraft type (c) 1 2 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 3
Incidents by province/territory 796 807 874 887 790 814 677 636 686 738
Newfoundland and Labrador 25 24 19 21 16 30 14 17 29 21
Prince Edward Island 1 2 1 2 2 0 1 0 2 0
Nova Scotia 14 17 26 20 18 25 19 17 11 22
New Brunswick 11 14 17 12 5 10 7 7 7 8
Quebec 123 101 127 127 97 108 126 107 122 89
Ontario 220 244 264 273 195 176 178 155 166 157
Manitoba 39 43 52 59 46 51 31 31 31 51
Saskatchewan 14 20 19 28 18 19 11 18 27 32
Alberta 108 111 79 89 106 84 82 81 103 98
British Columbia 93 83 133 120 162 156 76 101 99 132
Yukon 3 5 4 4 6 4 3 4 5 6
Northwest Territories 27 25 27 27 14 21 30 17 16 25
Nunavut 16 10 14 17 8 21 19 19 10 20
Other air space under Canadian air traffic control 23 30 23 10 30 26 25 13 19 19
Outside Canada 79 78 69 78 67 83 55 49 39 58

Data extracted February 17, 2015.

Reportable incidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.

New TSB regulations came into effect on July 1, 2014. Under new reporting requirements aviation incidents include: a) aircraft having a maximum certificated take-off weight greater than 2 250 kg (formerly 5700 kg); b) aircraft being operated under an air operator certificate issued under CARS Part VII.

Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, in the total "Incidents by aircraft type", when an occurrence involves an airplane and a helicopter, the occurrence is counted in each category, but only once in the total.

* "Number of aircraft involved in incidents" are aircraft counts, all other data are incident counts.

a. The commercial service type is not available for foreign-registered aircraft.

b. Other operator type contains, but is not limited to, organizations that rent aircraft (i.e., flying schools, flying clubs, etc.).

c. Includes balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, dirigibles, hang gliders, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and similar aircraft types.

Table 10. Reportable incidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft, 2005-2014
  2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Incidents by type 650 658 691 729 658 665 575 530 579 653
Risk of collision/Loss of separation 150 150 152 149 137 179 105 92 105 83
Declared emergency 152 184 186 235 237 238 224 200 231 277
Engine failure 116 106 108 98 94 67 87 77 70 94
Smoke/Fire 85 86 106 90 84 70 67 59 55 76
Collision 8 18 9 7 7 3 7 4 14 15
Control difficulties 41 31 38 32 18 24 27 31 22 36
Crew unable to perform duties 67 56 63 76 57 49 26 38 56 35
Dangerous goods-related 1 2 3 1 3 1 0 1 3 3
Depressurization 12 9 11 15 3 10 15 13 10 10
Fuel shortage 5 6 4 4 4 6 5 4 2 3
Failure to remain in landing area 10 6 7 16 8 8 10 9 7 17
Incorrect fuel 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Slung load released 1 3 3 5 3 9 1 1 4 4
Transmission or gearbox failure 1 0 1 0 3 1 1 1 0 0
Incidents by operator type 650 658 691 729 658 665 575 530 579 653
Commercial 604 635 660 704 627 636 546 501 552 620
Airliner (705) 487 524 563 586 495 519 445 409 449 427
Commuter (704) 89 79 75 94 88 85 75 78 90 104
Air taxi (703) 39 52 25 36 43 30 29 25 35 80
Aerial work (702) 22 20 17 24 30 26 15 11 12 32
Other commercial type (a) 24 31 36 32 19 31 22 14 11 10
State 25 20 28 16 21 21 14 18 19 11
Corporate 29 21 23 17 21 17 13 15 15 10
Private/Other operator type (b) 34 27 22 31 25 28 21 18 18 31
Incidents by aircraft type 650 658 691 729 658 665 575 530 579 653
Aeroplane 633 638 673 712 640 642 557 519 563 631
Helicopter 20 29 20 19 21 31 20 16 20 26
Ultralight/Other aircraft type (c) 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 3
Number of aircraft involved in incidents * 785 803 833 874 774 811 668 619 681 728
Aeroplanes 764 771 813 855 751 779 648 603 661 699
Helicopters 20 30 20 19 22 31 20 16 20 26
Ultralight/Other aircraft type (c) 1 2 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 3
Incidents by province/territory 650 658 691 729 658 665 575 530 579 653
Newfoundland and Labrador 14 13 10 13 7 13 10 10 17 12
Prince Edward Island 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0
Nova Scotia 7 12 17 12 13 19 14 9 9 19
New Brunswick 7 9 12 7 3 8 5 7 4 6
Quebec 98 79 90 96 77 89 104 84 96 81
Ontario 175 198 202 222 168 141 148 127 142 139
Manitoba 31 35 43 49 40 45 30 30 27 45
Saskatchewan 11 19 16 26 16 15 11 14 26 27
Alberta 95 99 67 76 92 74 76 75 93 93
British Columbia 85 72 120 103 141 134 68 87 93 125
Yukon 2 3 4 2 6 3 3 3 3 5
Northwest Territories 25 21 27 27 14 19 30 17 16 25
Nunavut 14 10 9 14 7 17 16 15 10 16
Other air space under Canadian air traffic control 7 8 5 3 6 5 5 3 3 2
Outside Canada 79 78 69 78 67 83 55 49 39 58

Data extracted February 17, 2015.

Reportable incidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.

New TSB regulations came into effect on July 1, 2014. Under new reporting requirements aviation incidents include: a) aircraft having a maximum certificated take-off weight greater than 2 250 kg (formerly 5700 kg); b) aircraft being operated under an air operator certificate issued under CARS Part VII.

Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, in the total "Incidents by aircraft type", when an occurrence involves an airplane and a helicopter, the occurrence is counted in each category, but only once in the total.

* "Number of aircraft involved in incidents" are aircraft counts, all other data are incident counts.

a. The commercial service type is not available for foreign-registered aircraft.

b. Other operator type contains, but is not limited to, organizations that rent aircraft (i.e., flying schools, flying clubs, etc.).

c. Includes balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, dirigibles, hang gliders, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and similar aircraft types.

Table 11. Number of accidents involving aeroplanes by phase of flight and selected event category, 2005-2014
  2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Total
Standing/Taxiing 21 20 16 13 20 17 18 17 23 17 182
Collision with object 8 8 6 6 9 6 6 7 8 6 70
Collision with moving aircraft 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 2 1 4 23
Nosedown/Overturned 2 1 0 1 1 4 3 3 5 1 21
Landing gear collapsed/retracted 2 1 1 0 4 2 3 0 2 1 16
Loss of control 0 2 1 0 1 3 0 3 4 1 15
Other events 14 11 10 6 9 8 10 9 13 10 100
Take-off 50 48 51 40 49 54 41 54 40 48 475
Collision with terrain 22 18 10 9 14 15 11 21 11 10 141
Loss of control 18 14 12 7 15 15 12 17 7 18 135
Collision with object 11 18 17 14 16 14 10 17 8 11 136
Take-off/Landing event 10 10 16 5 13 13 13 19 9 11 119
Power loss 12 9 14 14 12 14 11 6 13 16 121
Other events 25 19 26 21 22 27 22 22 20 27 231
En route 34 41 29 34 40 32 31 31 34 23 329
Power loss 14 18 11 18 25 13 14 15 15 14 157
Precautionary/Forced landing/Ditching 8 6 6 14 9 11 13 9 8 7 91
Collision with terrain 8 16 6 5 9 8 8 8 10 5 83
Component/System related 7 5 9 4 8 6 5 6 5 5 60
Other events 14 21 15 13 18 19 14 12 17 11 154
Manoeuvering 17 11 12 12 3 11 12 10 12 5 105
Collision with terrain 10 4 8 3 2 5 6 7 7 1 53
Loss of control 3 1 5 3 1 3 1 4 1 1 23
Collision with object 2 4 2 4 0 7 2 1 2 2 26
Power loss 5 0 0 4 1 1 3 0 0 0 14
Other events 6 5 4 6 1 3 8 3 5 2 43
Approach 31 25 28 29 31 29 23 19 31 27 273
Collision with terrain 14 5 5 8 12 11 7 6 6 7 81
Power loss 9 9 7 8 7 7 2 0 11 6 66
Collision with object 5 4 9 8 3 6 8 1 8 9 61
Component/System related 6 3 6 6 9 2 5 3 3 5 48
Precautionary/Forced landing/Ditching 5 5 2 6 4 5 3 3 7 8 48
Loss of control 3 4 3 5 3 6 3 4 4 1 36
Other events 14 6 13 4 14 10 7 11 8 6 93
Landing 106 116 149 114 122 112 114 111 116 99 1159
Missed or went off runway 33 22 26 17 24 24 27 27 28 14 242
Collision with object 23 30 32 22 23 25 28 26 18 20 247
Landing gear collapsed/retracted 7 16 30 28 18 26 24 22 25 17 213
Nosedown/Overturned 18 21 27 27 22 18 18 20 20 17 208
Loss of control 18 14 25 16 23 20 17 27 19 22 201
Hard landing 11 20 35 16 19 23 22 20 13 14 193
Collision with terrain 20 10 21 19 16 18 16 17 12 21 170
Wheels-up landing 6 5 11 8 12 7 3 7 10 7 76
Precautionary/Forced landing/Ditching 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 5
Other events 52 56 60 42 50 52 52 48 54 33 499
Post-impact 20 12 13 13 13 20 11 19 13 18 152
Fire/Explosion/Fumes 13 7 8 9 8 15 6 7 7 6 86
Other events 7 5 6 5 6 5 5 12 6 14 71
Table 12. Number of accidents involving helicopters by phase of flight and selected event category, 2005-2014
  2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Total
Standing/Taxiing 9 6 4 3 3 0 6 4 1 4 40
Collision with terrain 1 2 1 0 1 0 2 1 0 0 8
Loss of control 1 2 1 1 0 0 2 0 0 2 9
Collision with object 1 1 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 8
Other events 8 5 2 2 3 0 5 4 1 4 34
Take-off 10 11 7 7 4 2 7 7 7 9 71
Loss of control 4 7 4 4 1 1 4 2 0 5 32
Collision with terrain 3 6 2 3 2 2 3 1 2 1 25
Collision with object 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 4 2 3 16
Power loss 1 2 0 1 1 0 2 0 1 1 9
Other events 5 5 4 6 1 1 1 2 4 3 32
En route 8 12 12 11 11 7 10 9 5 7 92
Collision with terrain 4 5 6 6 3 3 3 3 1 3 37
Power loss 2 6 4 4 5 3 2 3 1 1 31
Precautionary/Forced landing/Ditching 3 3 3 2 1 1 2 3 1 0 19
Component/System related 3 2 0 3 1 1 3 2 1 1 17
Other events 4 3 5 8 5 3 5 4 4 4 45
Manoeuvering 11 14 13 9 7 9 10 12 8 6 99
Collision with terrain 7 5 5 4 3 3 6 6 5 3 47
Loss of control 5 0 7 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 27
Collision with object 0 7 1 2 2 4 3 3 2 3 27
Operations related event 1 4 4 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 16
Power loss 1 0 2 2 2 2 0 2 1 0 12
Other events 4 8 7 5 5 4 3 5 2 3 46
Approach 6 2 4 3 5 4 6 7 3 3 43
Collision with terrain 2 1 1 2 3 4 1 1 0 0 15
Power loss 2 1 1 0 1 0 0 2 0 1 8
Loss of control 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 6
Collision with object 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 4
Other events 2 1 2 2 3 3 3 5 3 2 26
Landing 19 21 16 17 15 15 7 13 12 12 147
Hard landing 2 9 5 6 2 4 4 4 1 3 40
Collision with terrain 5 3 1 5 5 4 2 4 0 3 32
Loss of control 5 4 2 6 2 1 1 1 2 4 28
Collision with object 4 5 4 3 4 4 0 2 5 4 35
Other events 8 7 9 4 9 7 2 4 9 5 64
Post-impact 9 4 4 3 4 4 4 2 3 2 39
Fire/Explosion/Fumes 7 3 3 2 3 1 2 1 2 0 24
Other events 2 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 2 15

Appendix B: Definitions

The following definitions apply to aviation occurrences that are required to be reported pursuant to the Canadian Transportation Accident Investigation and Safety Board Act and the associated regulations.

Aviation occurrence

  1. Any accident or incident associated with the operation of an aircraft; and
  2. Any situation or condition that the Board has reasonable grounds to believe could, if left unattended, induce an accident or incident described in a) above.

Reportable aviation accident

An accident resulting directly from the operation of an aircraft where

  1. a person sustains a serious injury or is killed as a result of
    1. being on board the aircraft;
    2. coming into contact with any part of the aircraft or its contents; or
    3. being directly exposed to the jet blast or rotor downwash of the aircraft;
  2. the aircraft sustains damage that adversely affects the structural strength, performance or flight characteristics of the aircraft and that requires major repair or replacement of any affected component part; or
  3. the aircraft is missing or inaccessible.

Reportable aviation incident

An incident resulting directly from the operation of an aeroplane having a maximum certificated take-off weight (MCTOW) greater than 5,700 kg, or from the operation of a rotorcraft having a MCTOW greater than 2,250 kg, where

  1. an engine fails or is shut down as a precautionary measure;
  2. a transmission gearbox malfunction occurs;
  3. smoke or fire occurs;
  4. difficulties in controlling the aircraft are encountered owing to any aircraft system malfunction, weather phenomena, wake turbulence, uncontrolled vibrations or operations outside the flight envelope;
  5. the aircraft fails to remain within the intended landing or take-off area, lands with all or part of the landing gear retracted, or drags a wing tip, an engine pod, or any other part of the aircraft;
  6. any crew member whose duties are directly related to the safe operation of the aircraft is unable to perform the crew member's duties as a result of physical incapacitation that poses a threat to the safety of any person, property, or the environment;
  7. depressurization occurs that necessitates an emergency descent;
  8. a fuel shortage occurs that necessitates a diversion or requires approach and landing priority at the destination of the aircraft;
  9. the aircraft is refuelled with the incorrect type of fuel or contaminated fuel;
  10. a collision, risk of collision, or loss of separation occurs;
  11. a crew member declares an emergency or indicates any degree of emergency that requires priority handling by an air traffic control unit or the standing by of emergency response services;
  12. a slung load is released unintentionally or as a precautionary or emergency measure from the aircraft; or
  13. any dangerous goods are released in or from the aircraft.

Serious injury

An injury that is sustained by a person in an accident and that

  1. requires hospitalization for more than 48 hours, commencing within seven days of the date the injury was received; or
  2. results in a fracture of any bone (except simple fractures of fingers, toes or nose); or
  3. involves lacerations that cause severe haemorrhage or nerve, muscle or tendon damage; or
  4. involves injury to any internal organ; or
  5. involves second- or third-degree burns, or any burns affecting more than 5% of the body surface; or
  6. involves verified exposure to infectious substances or injurious radiation.

ATS-related event

Any event related to the provision of air traffic control services including, but not limited to, failure or inability to provide service, emergency handling, or loss of in-flight separation.

Air proximity event

A situation in which, in the opinion of a pilot or air traffic services personnel, the distance between aircraft as well as their positions and speed have been such that the safety of the aircraft involved may have been compromised.

Commercial operators

Commercial operators include carriers that offer a “for-hire” service to transport people or goods, or to undertake specific tasks such as aerial photography, flight training, or crop spraying.

Airliner

An aeroplane used by a Canadian air operator in an air transport service or in aerial work involving sightseeing operations, that has a MCTOW of more than 8,618 kg (19,000 pounds) or for which a Canadian type certificate has been issued authorizing the transport of 20 or more passengers.

Commuter aircraft

An aeroplane used by a Canadian air operator, in an air transport service or in aerial work involving sightseeing operations, in which the aircraft is:

  1. a multi-engined aircraft that has a MCTOW of 8,618 kg (19,000 pounds) or less and a seating configuration, excluding pilot seats, of 10 to 19 inclusive;
  2. a turbo-jet-powered aeroplane that has a maximum zero fuel weight of 22,680 kg (50,000 pounds) or less and for which a Canadian type certificate has been issued authorizing the transport of not more than 19 passengers.

Aerial work aircraft

A commercially operated aeroplane or helicopter used in aerial work involving

  1. the carriage on board of persons other than flight crew members;
  2. the carriage of helicopter external loads;
  3. the towing of objects; or
  4. the dispersal of products.

Air taxi aircraft

A commercially operated aircraft used in an air transport service or in aerial work involving sightseeing operations, in which the aircraft is:

  1. a single-engined aircraft;
  2. a multi-engined aircraft, other than a turbo-jet-powered aeroplane, that has a MCTOW of 8,618 kg (19,000 pounds) or less and a seating configuration, excluding pilot seats, of nine or less; or
  3. any aircraft that is authorized by the Minister of Transport to be operated under Part VII, Subpart 3, Division 1 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs).

State operators

State operators include the federal and provincial governments.

Corporate operators

Corporate operators include companies flying for business reasons.

Private operators

Private operators include individuals flying for pleasure. Included are flights on which it is not possible to transport people or cargo on a “for-hire” basis.

Footnotes

Footnote 1

Ultra-light accidents will be presented separately in all subsequent discussion of occurrences involving Canadian-registered aircraft.

Return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

Source: Transport Canada

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Footnote 3

It is agreed by convention that, for a result to be considered statistically significant, its probability must be lower than 1 in 20 (that is, p<.05).

Return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

As some occurrences involve more than one aircraft, readers are cautioned to note differences between the number of occurrences and the number of aircraft involved in occurrences. All Tables except Table 1 exclude ultra-light aircraft; all tables except Tables 1 and 4 also exclude balloons, gliders, gyrocopters, and UAVs.

Return to footnote 4 referrer

Footnote 5

Transport Canada Canadian Civil Aircraft Registry

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Footnote 6

Manoeuvering (i.e., low altitude/aerobatic flight operations) does not occur on all flights.

Return to footnote 6 referrer