Associated links (A21O0127)
Temperature drop caused a wet runway surface to freeze, resulting in a runway overrun in Kingston, Ontario
Richmond Hill, Ontario, 28 February 2023 — Today, the Transportation Safety Board of Canada (TSB) released its investigation report (A21O0127) into a runway overrun in Kingston, Ontario in 2021.
On 30 November 2021, at 17:54 EST, an Embraer EMB-505 aircraft, operated by I.M.P. Group Limited, departed Montréal/Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport (CYUL), Quebec, for an instrument flight rules flight to Kingston/Norman Rogers Airport (CYGK), Ontario, with two pilots on board.
Upon landing in Kingston CYGK on Runway 19, the pilots applied maximum braking. Although the braking system was working properly, the pilots did not feel the expected deceleration. The aircraft departed the runway’s end while skidding slightly to the left and came to a stop in a grassy area approximately 440 feet beyond the runway threshold. Neither pilot was injured, the aircraft was undamaged, and there was no damage to airport fixtures.
The investigation determined that the surface friction on Runway 19 at the time of the occurrence was consistent with that of an ice-covered runway. The aerodrome routine meteorological reports (METARs) issued during the hours leading up to the occurrence indicated both that snow had been falling steadily and that the temperature had dropped below freezing. Despite the snowfall, the runways still appeared bare and wet at the time of the occurrence.
The most recent runway surface condition NOTAM (Notice to Airmen) reviewed by the crew reported good braking conditions with a wet runway surface. As a result, they determined that a safe landing was possible. However, during the time between the issuance of the runway surface condition NOTAM and the occurrence landing, some of the moisture on the runway surface had frozen, resulting in an icy surface with limited friction available for braking.
While the aircraft touched down at the planned speed within the touchdown zone and the brakes were applied immediately, the decreased braking effectiveness resulted in the runway overrun.
Runway overruns are a Watchlist 2022 issue. As this occurrence demonstrates, when a runway overrun occurs during landing, it is important that the aircraft have an adequate safety area beyond the end of the runway to reduce adverse consequences.
Following the occurrence, the aircraft operator, I.M.P. Group Limited, updated its procedures to include the task of notifying the airport operator of planned arrivals when environmental conditions may be affecting the runway condition and to require pilots to request updated runway condition reports if conditions warrant.
See the investigation page for more information.
The TSB is an independent agency that investigates air, marine, pipeline, and rail transportation occurrences. Its sole aim is the advancement of transportation safety. It is not the function of the Board to assign fault or determine civil or criminal liability.
For more information, contact:
Transportation Safety Board of Canada