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Air transportation safety investigation A17O0243

The TSB has completed this investigation. The report was published on 9 July 2018.

Table of contents

Hard landing

Jazz Aviation LP
Bombardier DHC-8-402, C-GYJZ
Toronto/Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport, Ontario

View final report

The occurrence

On 9 November 2017, a Bombardier DHC-8-402 operated by Jazz Aviation LP was conducting flight JZA7977 from Montréal/Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport, Quebec, to Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport, Ontario, with 4 crew members and 52 passengers on board. While landing in Toronto in gusty wind conditions, the aircraft bounced and touched back down firmly on the runway. Subsequently, the flight data recorder caution light illuminated. The aircraft then taxied to the gate as normal. The flight crew conducted a visual inspection of the aircraft; no abnormalities were detected. It was then decided that a hard landing maintenance inspection was not required.

After the departure on the return flight to Montreal, the flight crew requested that the aircraft be inspected on arrival due to the hard landing. Maintenance personnel discovered airframe damage to the aft right fuselage and the right main landing gear. The aircraft manufacturer has undertaken a damage assessment and a repair plan for the aircraft in order to return it to service. No injuries or pollution were reported.

Media materials

News release


Investigation report: November 2017 hard landing at Toronto/Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport, Ontario
Read the news release

Investigation information

Map showing the location of the occurrence


Brian Stokes joined the TSB in 2016 as a Regional Senior Investigator in the Air Investigations Branch, at the Ontario regional office in Richmond Hill, Ontario.

Mr. Stokes has more than 25 years of experience in civil aviation as a pilot and as an aircraft maintenance engineer. He holds an airline transport pilot licence with approximately 10 000 hours of flight time on various fixed wing aircraft including the B777, B767, MD83 and B737. Just prior to joining the TSB, Mr. Stokes worked as a B737 pilot and simulator instructor.

  Download high-resolution photos from the TSB Flickr page.

Class of investigation

This is a class 4 investigation. These investigations are limited in scope, and while the final reports may contain limited analysis, they do not contain findings or recommendations. Class 4 investigations are generally completed within 220 days. For more information, see the Policy on Occurrence Classification.

TSB investigation process

There are 3 phases to a TSB investigation

  1. Field phase: a team of investigators examines the occurrence site and wreckage, interviews witnesses and collects pertinent information.
  2. Examination and analysis phase: the TSB reviews pertinent records, tests components of the wreckage in the lab, determines the sequence of events and identifies safety deficiencies. When safety deficiencies are suspected or confirmed, the TSB advises the appropriate authority without waiting until publication of the final report.
  3. Report phase: a confidential draft report is approved by the Board and sent to persons and corporations who are directly concerned by the report. They then have the opportunity to dispute or correct information they believe to be incorrect. The Board considers all representations before approving the final report, which is subsequently released to the public.

For more information, see our Investigation process page.

The TSB is an independent agency that investigates air, marine, pipeline, and rail transportation occurrences. Its sole aim is the advancement of transportation safety. It is not the function of the Board to assign fault or determine civil or criminal liability.